Last December, the All Nepal Football Association took the historic decision to end wage discrimination between national male and female players and pay them the same wages from January 2021.
Nepal has thus become one of the few countries in the world to end wage disparities in sport. But in most other sectors, there is still a significant pay gap between women and men, according to a recent study report released by the Central Bureau of Statistics.
A women in business analytical report shows that the share of female workers in all sectors is high when monthly income is low and vice versa.
The share of female workers is 58% for monthly incomes of less than 7,600 rupees. On the other hand, the share of female workers is only 12.2% for monthly incomes above 25,000 Rs.
The Central Bureau of Statistics, the central agency for the collection, consolidation, processing, analysis, publication and dissemination of data in Nepal, reports that the biggest pay gap between men and women is in the “professional” category. In this category, for example, if a man earns Rs 23,800 per month, a woman earns Rs 12,000.
Even in the “managers” category, which requires skills, if a man earns Rs 32,000 per month, the average salary for women is Rs 25,500.
The pay gap in the “technicians and associated professionals” category is not that large, with the monthly wages of men and women being Rs 24,000 and Rs 22,500 respectively. forestry and fishing ”, if a man earns Rs 12,167 per month, women workers earn Rs 11,406.
“One of the reasons that women’s cash income is lower than that of male workers is that few female workers are in managerial and professional jobs,” the report said. “Another reason is that the income of female workers is lower than that of male workers, even when they are in the same jobs. ”
To achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, the office recommended that a set of 17 interconnected global goals be designed to be a model for achieving a better and more sustainable future for all. With regard to gender equality and the empowerment of women, it would be important to understand the situation of women’s participation in political, economic and public activities.
Kushum Shakya, professor and former head of the Central Department of Economics at Tribhuvan University, said social barriers and education were the main obstacles preventing women from participating in different business activities, including the gap in gender pay.
“Most women leave their careers soon after starting a family. It reduces their participation in higher positions, ”Shakya said. “Women are also forced to drop out of school halfway for various pressing reasons. So with a low level of education, they stay at the lower levels of their professional careers, ”she said.
Shakya said there is a huge disparity in payments in the private sector. “The government should provide for an equal pay system. The pay gap is the main reason for discouraging women from participating in work and for their professional growth, ”she said.
The main gender equality issues in Nepal, as highlighted in the Fifteenth Plan (2020-2021 to 2024-25), include the prevalence of behavioral discrimination against women and the persistence of societal structures, traditional beliefs, values and practices that promote illiteracy. , harmful practices, gender discrimination and violence against women.
Nepalese women ranked second in South Asia and 101st globally in the Global Gender Gap Report 2020. The Global Gender Gap Index showed Nepal to rank well in political empowerment while by being placed in inferior positions in terms of education, health and survival.
The Fifteenth Plan developed strategies such as responsive budgets at all levels of government for the institutionalization of gender and for the achievement of economic empowerment and social transformation with particular priority given to economically poor and socially excluded women. in order to achieve substantive gender equality by ensuring gender equality. and meaningful participation of women.
Bhawani Rana, outgoing president of the Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Nepal’s top private sector body, said women are gradually becoming leaders, mainly in the business sector.
“A patriarchal culture, access to finance, lack of technical knowledge and traditional production methods are obstacles for women entrepreneurs to move forward,” said Rana. “As most women are engaged in informal business sectors, which are not registered, their economic contribution is not counted or is not visible in statistics,” she added.
Despite the government’s efforts, gender disparities in Nepal have not been completely eliminated as women lag behind in terms of literacy, property rights and labor participation, according to the report.
According to the report, the literacy rate for women of 57.7 percent is 20 percent lower than that of men, the proportion of women with access to property rights is only 26 percent and participation in the women’s work is 26.3 percent compared to 53.8 percent for men.
In terms of societal aspects, women are disproportionately more involved in unpaid housework than men, according to the analytical report.
According to the report, there are 273,436 female managers, or 29.6 percent, compared to 648,773 male managers who represent 70.3 percent of the total.
From agriculture, forestry and fishing to manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade, accommodation and food services, financial and insurance activities, professional, scientific and technical activities, to education, human health and other social activities, the number of male executives exceeds that of women, according to the report.
There are 77.6% of male executives in the manufacturing sector against only 22.2% of female executives. In the finance and insurance sectors, there are 75 percent male managers and only 24.7% female managers.
The gender gap in the information and communication sector is even wider, with 89% of male managers and only 9.8% of female managers.
According to the report, women’s participation in decision-making levels in the private sector is 29.61 percent. Likewise, the participation of women in the cooperative sector is 51 percent.
The report indicates that 98.3% of female managers were employed in 268,866 micro-establishments which employ 1 to 9 people. The scale of businesses created by female managers is small compared to male managers.
The report states that the average annual turnover of a business run by female managers is Rs 1 million, compared to Rs 4.1 million for male managers. Likewise, the average annual profit of companies headed by female executives is Rs343,000, against Rs1.2 million for male executives.
Male managers’ access to credit is 36.1% and that of female managers 34.3%, according to the report. The main providers of loans to women-led businesses are cooperatives with 36.4 percent, while the main providers of loans to male-led businesses are banks with 39.6 percent.
There are 1.2 million female employees, representing 37.7% of the workforce, while the figure for male employees is 2 million, or 62.3%, according to the report.
More women are engaged in human health and social work activities with 56.8 percent compared to 43.2 percent for men.